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Securing Democracy: Capstone's Impact on Ohio's 2018 Audit

This white paper explores the significant role of Capstone Technologies Group in the 2018 Ohio Election Audit, focusing on enhancing electoral integrity in the face of digital threats. Amidst growing cybersecurity concerns, the audit in Clark County serves as a crucial examination of the resilience of election systems. Through comprehensive analysis, this document highlights Capstone's strategic contributions to auditing processes, underscoring the importance of advanced security measures in protecting the democratic process.

Ohio Elections Audit 2018 White Paper

Executive Summary:

This white paper presents an in-depth analysis of the 2018 Ohio Election Audit, with a particular focus on the critical role played by Capstone Technologies Group. The audit, conducted in Clark County, Ohio, represents a pivotal moment in understanding and enhancing the security of electoral processes in the digital age. In an era where cyber threats are increasingly sophisticated and pervasive, the integrity of election systems is more crucial than ever. This paper delves into the evolving landscape of election security, the challenges faced during the audit, and the strategic approach adopted by Capstone Technologies Group to address these challenges.

As cybersecurity threats continue to evolve, the necessity for robust and proactive security measures in safeguarding the democratic process has become apparent. The 2018 Ohio Election Audit, a response to global cybersecurity concerns and the guidelines set forth in Directive 2018-15, serves as a prime example of how public-private partnerships can effectively address and mitigate these risks. Within this context, Capstone Technologies Group emerged as a key player, bringing their extensive expertise in IT solutions and cybersecurity to the forefront of this endeavor.

The paper outlines the comprehensive approach taken by Capstone in the audit, including detailed documentation review, onsite assessments, in-depth interviews, and a thorough evaluation of Clark County's election infrastructure. It summarizes the key findings of the audit, the actionable recommendations provided by Capstone, and the subsequent improvements made to the election security framework.

Furthermore, the paper discusses the broader implications of these findings and Capstone's contributions to the field of election cybersecurity. It emphasizes the importance of such audits in maintaining the integrity of electoral processes and highlights the role of experienced cybersecurity firms like Capstone Technologies Group in navigating these complex challenges.

In conclusion, this white paper aims to shed light on the critical aspects of election security and the indispensable role of expert cybersecurity partnerships in protecting democratic institutions against digital threats.


In the contemporary digital landscape, the intersection of cybersecurity and electoral processes has become a focal point of national and global interest. The sanctity of democratic elections, a bedrock of modern governance, is increasingly reliant on the integrity and security of digital infrastructure. This growing importance of cybersecurity in electoral processes cannot be overstated, as the threat landscape continues to evolve with sophisticated cyberattacks that could undermine public trust and the legitimacy of electoral outcomes. It is in this context that the 2018 Ohio Election Audit in Clark County emerges as a critical case study, exemplifying the concerted efforts required to protect our democratic institutions from digital threats.

The audit was initiated in response to the heightened awareness of potential vulnerabilities in the electoral system, partly driven by national discussions around election security and the recognition of election systems as critical infrastructure by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Clark County, Ohio, became the focus of this audit, serving as a microcosm of the broader challenges faced in safeguarding election integrity. The aim was to thoroughly assess and enhance the security posture of the county’s election infrastructure, ensuring it was fortified against potential cyber intrusions and manipulations.

Enter Capstone Technologies Group, a firm with a distinguished record in providing cutting-edge IT solutions and cybersecurity expertise. Their involvement in the audit was pivotal, bringing to the table their extensive experience and deep understanding of complex cybersecurity ecosystems. Capstone’s role was multifaceted – from conducting in-depth assessments and analyses to offering strategic recommendations aimed at bolstering the county’s election security. Their participation not only underscored their technical proficiency but also their commitment to upholding the integrity of electoral processes.

This white paper aims to dissect the nuances of the 2018 Ohio Election Audit, with an emphasis on the contributions of Capstone Technologies Group. It seeks to provide insights into the methodologies employed, the challenges encountered, and the overall impact of the audit on enhancing election security in Clark County. In doing so, it highlights the indispensable role that expert cybersecurity firms play in protecting the democratic process in an era increasingly defined by digital interactions.

Section 1: Background and Context

The Evolving Landscape of Election Security and Cyber Threats

The landscape of election security has significantly evolved in recent years, marked by the advancement of digital technologies and a parallel rise in sophisticated cyber threats. The shift towards digital electoral processes, while enhancing efficiency, has opened up new avenues for cyber vulnerabilities. These threats range from data breaches to more complex tactics such as misinformation campaigns, attacks on voter registration systems, and disruptions in election operations. Such cyber threats pose risks not only to the integrity of election results but also to the public’s confidence in the democratic process.

The escalation of these threats is evident in numerous reports and studies, underscoring the critical need for robust election cybersecurity strategies. As attackers employ more complex techniques, safeguarding election systems against potential intrusions has become increasingly urgent.

National and State-Level Response to Cyber Threats

In response to these emerging cyber threats, initiatives at both the national and state levels have been developed. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, recognizing the vital nature of election systems, has increased its focus on election security. This includes designating election systems as critical infrastructure and providing support to state and local governments to enhance their cybersecurity defenses, as detailed in sources like TechRepublic.

At the state level, measures such as the 2018 Ohio Election Audit in Clark County were initiated to address these concerns. As directed by Directive 2018-15 from the Ohio Secretary of State’s Office, this audit represented a proactive approach to evaluate and enhance the security of election infrastructure. It aimed to identify vulnerabilities and implement strategies to mitigate cyber risks, exemplifying Ohio’s commitment to protecting its electoral processes.

The 2018 Ohio Election Audit in Clark County stands as a significant effort, reflecting the broader recognition of the importance of stringent cybersecurity measures in elections. It highlights the necessity of continuous vigilance and adaptation to counter evolving cyber threats and sets a benchmark for future election security initiatives.

Section 2: The Audit - Scope and Challenges

Scope of the Audit in Clark County, Ohio:

The scope of the 2018 Ohio Election Audit in Clark County was delineated by a comprehensive 88-point checklist that covered various facets of election infrastructure. Each point on the checklist corresponded to an aspect of the election process that required scrutiny, ranging from network security protocols, like whitelisting IP addresses, to procedural safeguards such as enforcing strong access control measures and ensuring the physical security of devices.

Challenges Encountered:

 Incorporating the expansive checklist into the audit posed several challenges:

  • Technical Diversity: The checklist mandated a detailed review of diverse systems and controls, including the encryption of critical data, the hardening of system components, and the management of access privileges. This necessitated a granular approach to evaluate each technical specification against current cybersecurity standards.
  • Procedural Complexity: Implementing procedural controls from the checklist, such as ensuring that only authorized devices were connected to the network and deploying application whitelisting, required navigating complex operational workflows without disrupting the election process.
  • Compliance and Standards: The audit had to ensure that the security measures were not only in compliance with the Center for Internet Security's best practices but also adaptable to the specific configurations of Clark County's electoral systems.
  • Resource Allocation: The execution of the checklist involved a strategic allocation of resources, balancing the upfront and ongoing costs of security improvements against the priority and potential resistance to change within the election infrastructure.
  • Collaboration and Verification: The audit's success was contingent upon seamless collaboration among stakeholders to verify the integrity of tamper-evident seals, conduct vulnerability scanning, and validate the security of wireless and remote access protocols.

Through meticulous adherence to the 88-point checklist, the audit provided a rigorous assessment of Clark County's election infrastructure, addressing technical vulnerabilities and procedural gaps, ensuring regulatory compliance, and setting a benchmark for election security.

Section 3: Capstone’s Strategic Approach

The methodology Capstone Technologies Group employed in the 2018 Ohio Election Audit was comprehensive, addressing both technical and procedural dimensions:

  • Initial Documentation Review: This phase involved a meticulous review of the existing cybersecurity policies and procedures. The team scrutinized network configurations, user access controls, and data protection measures to establish a baseline understanding of the current security stance.
  • In-depth Onsite Inspections: Capstone's experts conducted thorough on-site evaluations of the physical and digital election infrastructure. They examined server rooms, network devices, and voting machines, ensuring the actual implementation of documented security protocols.
  • Comprehensive Interviews: In-depth discussions with IT staff, election administrators, and other relevant personnel provided insights into operational practices and challenges. These interviews were instrumental in identifying gaps between policy and practice.
  • Rigorous Vulnerability Assessment: Utilizing the detailed 88-point checklist, the team performed a systematic vulnerability analysis. This included assessing network security, verifying encryption standards, reviewing access control lists, and evaluating intrusion detection systems.
  • Iterative Follow-up Assessments: Following the initial assessment, Capstone engaged in a series of follow-up reviews. These were crucial for monitoring the implementation of recommended security enhancements and ensuring that these measures were effectively integrated into the election infrastructure.
  • Detailed Reporting and Actionable Recommendations: The audit concluded with a comprehensive report that outlined key findings, areas of concern, and a set of tailored recommendations. This report served as a roadmap for enhancing the cybersecurity posture of Clark County's election infrastructure.

Throughout the audit, Capstone balanced thoroughness with operational practicality, demonstrating a profound understanding of the complexities inherent in securing election systems. Their strategic approach, rooted in a detailed checklist and enriched by their expertise, ensured a nuanced and effective audit.

Section 4: Key Findings and Recommendations

Stylized hacker with various terms highlighted on a blue background

The 2018 Ohio Election Audit led by Clark State and Capstone Technologies Group yielded several critical findings:

  • System Vulnerabilities: The audit identified specific vulnerabilities in network security and data encryption practices. While these vulnerabilities were not critical, they highlighted the need for regular updates and stricter access controls.
  • Policy-Practice Gaps: A gap between documented policies and their practical implementation was observed. This included inconsistencies in adherence to security protocols across different systems.
  • Physical Security Concerns: Certain physical security measures for election equipment and data storage areas required strengthening to prevent unauthorized access.

Based on these findings, Capstone Technologies Group recommended:

  • Enhanced Network Security: Implementing more robust network security protocols, including advanced encryption methods and regular security patch updates.
  • Policy Alignment and Training: Aligning operational practices with established security policies, coupled with comprehensive staff training programs to ensure consistent application.
  • Physical Security Upgrades: Improving physical security measures for critical election infrastructure to safeguard against unauthorized access and potential tampering.

These recommendations aimed to fortify the election infrastructure against evolving cybersecurity threats, ensuring the integrity and reliability of the electoral process.

Section 5: Impact and Future Implications

The audit's impact on Clark County's election security was significant:

  • Enhanced Security Measures: Implementing Capstone's recommendations led to strengthened cybersecurity defenses, making the county's election infrastructure more resilient against potential cyber threats.
  • Raised Awareness: The audit heightened awareness about the importance of cybersecurity in elections, encouraging ongoing vigilance and regular security assessments.
  • Policy Refinement: It prompted a reevaluation and refinement of existing security policies and procedures, ensuring they are up-to-date and effectively implemented.

The broader implications for other regions include:

  • Blueprint for Future Audits: The audit serves as a model for other counties and states, demonstrating the importance of comprehensive cybersecurity audits in election security.
  • Standard Setting: It helps set higher standards for election security nationwide, emphasizing the need for continuous improvement in cybersecurity measures.
  • Collaborative Approach: The audit underscores the value of collaboration between government agencies, educational institutions, and cybersecurity firms in enhancing election security.

Section 6: Capstone's Expertise and Contributions

Capstone Technologies Group's expertise in cybersecurity was significantly amplified by their collaborative approach during the 2018 Ohio Election Audit. Working closely with Clark State, Professor Dan Heighton, Greg Teets, William Blake, the Clark County Board of Elections, and the Clark County IT Department, Capstone demonstrated a team-oriented strategy that was critical to the audit's success. Each member of this alliance contributed their unique skills and knowledge, ensuring a comprehensive and thorough assessment of the county's election infrastructure.

The significance of Capstone's contribution extends beyond technical expertise. Their ability to integrate seamlessly into a multi-disciplinary team, to share insights, and to work towards a common goal of enhancing election security is a testament to their commitment and adaptability. The dedication and effort exerted by everyone involved were extraordinary, with each member giving more than 100% to ensure the integrity and security of the electoral process. This collaborative effort not only fortified Clark County's election infrastructure but also set a benchmark for future cybersecurity initiatives in the electoral realm, highlighting the importance of teamwork, expertise, and unwavering dedication in tackling complex cybersecurity challenges.


This white paper has underscored the critical role of cybersecurity in safeguarding election integrity. Capstone Technologies Group’s expertise and collaborative efforts in the 2018 Ohio Election Audit in Clark County have demonstrated the importance of comprehensive cyber defense strategies in protecting democratic processes. The key takeaways include the necessity of thorough audits, the effectiveness of collaborative approaches, and the continuous evolution of security measures to combat emerging threats. The audit's success highlights the ongoing need for vigilance and adaptability in cybersecurity practices to ensure the integrity of elections in the digital age.



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